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The dialect is generally known as Caitnes ('Kate-niss') which is the local form of the county name in Scots.


Although Caithness (Caitnes) faces towards Orkney, it forms part of another, wider dialect known as Northern Scots. Northern Scots includes all the forms of Scots spoken from Caithness as far south as eastern Angus. There is much about the Caithness dialect that is similar to the North East of Scotland. For example, in Caithness, just as in the North East, an f is used instead of a wh. So what and when become fat and fan. Also, the th at the start of many words is lost so that the, that, this and they are pronounced e, at, is and ey by Caithness speakers. It is also common, perhaps even more so than the North East, for the sound ee to replace a number of vowels such as ai, oo and u.  For example, words such as been (bone), heer (hair), meed (made), and meen (moon). There are also a few features which are probably derived from cross over with Gaeilc.  The sound ch is softened to an s or sh as in shapel (chapel). Caithness speakers also say she, her or hers instead of it and its.

One example of a text in Caithness dialect is E Silkie Man written by David Houston. Here is an extract from it: So Donel an Peter ey pits on eir keps an eyre aff owre e links is hard is ey can pin, t see fats come or. Ey pairted at e point e Niss, Donel he meed aist aboot fill he cam t Sannick, an Peter he geed wast aboot fill he meed Robbys hevn. Ey searched ivry hol an corner. Ey cried aney fustled, bit eres nee try nor token o Kirsty. An noo is ey cam back t far ey pairted, ere e fowg lifts, an e shores a ifore em bit ids e same teel. Ey thocht at mebbe shed geen t ca e rockies aff e growan breether, an ey thocht at mebbe shed geen t Strowma for a folly. E Strowma fowk hed been at e peits e aist hill, an mannys e time hed e Strowma shither tried t get Kirsty owre wi em. Eir young shiels wis daft aboot ir an mannys e nicht at ey hed sorned roon ir faithers hoose tryant t get eir een ipor, fan ey wud be at e mill here gettan eir pickles o corn vrocht.

Thumbnail History

In 1735 Aneas Bayne, in his 'A Survey of the County of Caithness', commented that the local dialect was then spoken in five or six parishes, with Gaelic in the other four.  He also commented that the commons speak it tolerably well where they are not much corrupted by the accents and idioms of the Irish (by which he meant Gaels). The compilers of the Old Statistical Account said in 1791 that the speech of Canisbay was Scotch with an intermixture of Norwegian vocables while in Wick (1791) the people spoke the common provincial dialect of the north.  The same was said of Canisbay and Wick in 1840-41. In Halkirk in 1840 Gaelic was giving way to Scots and had been doing so for some forty years previously. It would be true to say that the relationship between Scots and Gaelic in this region has not always been cordial. Recent moves by officialdom to place Gaelic signs in Scots-speaking parts of Caithness have led to new tensions.


The well known places of Caithness include Dounreay (Dounerie), John O Groats (The Groats), Thurso (Thursa), and Wick (Weik). Like some other parts of Scotland, Caithness has a long-established fishing community who also have their own distinct Scots words and phrases. Writers in Caithness dialect include George Gunn, Robert MacKay, D Manson and Jenny Stewart. There were a number of publications in the local dialect published during the 20th century.